Natural Gas

Natural Gas is a new age fuel. With only one carbon and four hydrogen atoms per molecule, Natural Gas has the lowest carbon to hydrogen ratio, hence it burns completely, making it the cleanest of fossil fuels. Natural Gas satisfies most of the requirements for fuel in a modern day industrial society, being efficient, non-polluting and relatively economical. The periodic uncertainties and volatility in both the price and supply of oil, have also helped Natural Gas emerge as a major fuel in the energy basket across countries.

Natural Gas comes in 4 basic forms
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) - Natural Gas which has been liquefied at – (Minus) 160 degree Centigrade. Natural Gas is liquefied to facilitate transportation in large volumes in cryogenic tankers across sea.
Regasified Liquefied Natural Gas (RLNG) – LNG Re-gasified before transporting it to consumers through Pipelines.
Compressed Natural gas (CNG) - Natural Gas compressed to a pressure of 200-250 kg/cm2 used as fuel for transportation. CNG decreases vehicular pollution on the virtue of being cleaner fuel than liquid fuels.
Piped Natural gas (PNG) - Natural Gas distributed through a pipeline network that has safety valves to maintain the pressure, assuring safe, uninterrupted supply to the domestic sector for cooking and heating / cooling applications.
Sector Natural Gas is used
Generation of electricity by utilities As fuel for base load power plants In combined cycle/co-generation power plants
Fertilizer Industry As feed stock in the production of ammonia and urea
Industrial As an under boiler fuel for raising steam As fuel in furnaces and heating applications
Domestic and commercia For heating of spaces and water For cooking
Automotive As a non-polluting fuel
Petrochemicals As the raw material from which a variety of chemical products e.g. methanol, are derived

Natural Gas Transmission

Natural Gas, a new age fuel is the cleanest, efficient, non-polluting, environmental friendly and relatively economical of the fossil fuels in the modern day industrial society.

Natural Gas Pipeline Infrastructure connects various gas sources to different gas markets to the meet the existing/ future natural gas demand of various Powers, Fertilizer, CGD and other industries in the Country. The gas pipeline infrastructure has not only developed the much needed industrialization but all brought socio-economic changes in the major regions from where the gas pipeline passes.

A big challenge lies in bridging the physical gap between demand and supply centers in an efficient, safe and eco-friendly manner. Pipeline transportation of gas offers a safe, economic and environmentally sound alternative to most other modes of energy transport.

The Government and Regulator also recognize the need to augment the natural gas transmission infrastructure in the country and has provided continual support towards development of natural gas pipeline which is shaping-up into Natural Gas Grid (NGG).

Over the years, GAIL as a major pipeline operator has contributed to the growth and development of natural gas pipeline infrastructure and natural gas market and has existing 10,977 Kms. of robust gas pipeline infrastructure with a capacity of 210 MMSCMD. GAIL’s existing natural gas pipeline network has Pan- India presence and covers 16 States (AP, Assam, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, MP, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, TN, Tripura, Uttarakhand, & U.P.) and 2 UT’s (Puducherry & Dadra Nagar Haveli).

Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, in the year 2007, authorized five new pipelines covering a length of over 5,200 km.

  Operational Natural Gas Pipelines of GAIL
  Common Carrier + Dedicated  
Sl. No. Network/ Region Length (in KMs.)
2 GREP DVPL Upgradation 1119
6 MUMBAI 129
7 KG BASIN 881
10 CJHPL 265
11 DBNPL 835
13 KKBMPL 41

GAIL is in constant endeavor to expand its pipeline infrastructure across the length and breadth of the country. With the execution of in hand pipeline projects, GAIL is entering into the eastern and southern part of country by which the states of eastern and Southern parts of the country will be connected to the Natural Gas Grid of the country. With upcoming of Jagdishpur Haldia & Bokaro Dhamra pipeline project (Pradhanmantri Urja Ganga Pipeline project) GAIL shall cover states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha and West Bengal.

Details of ongoing major Cross Country Pipeline Projects of GAIL are:

Gas Pipeline Projects under execution Length Investment (Rs. Cr.) States covered
Jagdishpur – Haldia & Bokaro – Dhamra Pipeline 2655 Km 12940* Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal
Vijaipur – Auraiya – Phulpur Pipeline 670 Km 4309 Madhya Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Kochi – Koottanad Bengaluru Mangaluru  Pipeline 879 Km 2915 Kerala


4204 Km



* Government’s capital Grant for the Project is Rs. 5176 Cr. i.e. 40% of Project Cost

Other Ongoing Projects

Projects under execution Details Investment (Rs. Cr.) States covered
City Gas Distribution network in 06 cities along JHBDPL  p/l CGS Connectivity to Varanasi, Bhubneshwar, Cuttack, Patna, Ranchi & Jamshedpur 1725 Uttar Pradesh
Capacity Augmentation of Jamnagar Loni LPG Pipeline Project (JLPL) Increasing capacity from 2.5 MMTPA  to 3.25 MMTPA 328 Rajasthan
Pipe Line Replacement Projects
  • KG Basin
  • Gujarat
  • Cauvery Basin
850 Km 1600 Andra Pradesh
Tamil Nadu
Efficiency enhancement Projects
  • Rich lean gas corridor  modification
  • Waste heat recovery at Hazira & Vijaipur
Break water at Dhabol LNG terminal.
  1000 Gujarat
Madhya Pradesh
Consumers connections & LMCs      

GAIL shall continue to meet the Noble objective of supply and transportation of natural gas through its state of art natural gas transmission pipeline system and shall contribute to the growth and Industrialization in India. GAIL is providing pipeline connectivity to the prospective customers located along GAIL’s pipeline network.

Gas - Marketing

Since inception in 1984, GAIL has been the undisputed leader in the marketing, transmission and distribution of Natural Gas in India. As India's leading Natural Gas Major, it has been instrumental in the development of the Natural Gas market in the country.

Currently, GAIL sells around 60% of Natural Gas sold in the country. Of this, 29% is to the power sector and 34% to the fertilizer sector. Currently, GAIL is supplying around 49 MMSCMD of Natural Gas from domestic sources to customers across India. These customers range from the smallest of companies to mega power and fertilizer plants. GAIL has adopted a Gas Management System to handle multiple sources of supply and delivery of gas in a co-mingled form and provide a seamless interface between shippers, customers, transporters and suppliers. We are present in 18 states, i.e., Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Uttarakhand, Goa, Punjab, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Assam and Tripura besides the Union Territories of Puducherry, Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Chandigarh. We are further extending our coverage to states of West Bengal, Jharkhand, Odisha and Bihar through our upcoming pipelines.

GAIL is actively pursuing opportunities in inter-regional gas trade both in the form of Pipeline gas and LNG.

GAIL has also been entrusted in carrying our pooling of RLNG for fertilizer sector. In the past GAIL has also successfully implemented Government sponsored RLNG policy for power sector.


Liquefied natural gas

GAIL has signed more than 30 Master Sales Purchase Agreements (MSPAs) with major reputed International LNG suppliers, Producers and Traders. GAIL has been off-taking RLNG from PLL under its long term SPA being supplied from Qatar and Australia.

GAIL has been successful in securing LNG under long term agreements from suppliers like Sabine Pass, US, Dominion Cove USA etc. For its LNG portfolio, GAIL is in the process of chartering LNG ships. In addition GAIL, wholly owned subsidiary, GAIL Global Singapore Pte Ltd (GGSPL), is operating in LNG trading business segment. GGSPL on its own has MSPAs with more than 35 counter parties. GAIL intends to pursue LNG trading opportunities through GGSPL.

Energy Conversion Matrix

Frequently used General Conversions in the Gas Industry
1 SCM (Standard Cubic Meter) = 1 cubic metre @ 1 atmosphere pressure and 15.56 ° C
1 Cubic Metre = 35.31 Cubic feet  
1 BCM(Billion Cubic Metre) / Year of gas (consumption or production) = 2.74 MMSCMD 365 Days a Year
1 TCF (Trillion Cubic Feet) of Gas Reserve = 3.88 MMSCMD 100% Recoverable for 20 years @ 365 days / Annum)
1 MMTPA of LNG =3.60 MMSCMD Mol.Weight of 18 @ 365 days/Annum)
1 MT of LNG =1314 SCM Mol.Weight of 18
Gross Calorific Value (GCV) 10000 Kcal/ SCM  
Net Calorific Value (NCV) 90% of GCV  
1 Million BTU (MMBTU) = 25.2 SCM @10000 Kcal/SCM; 1 MMBTU= 252,000 Kcal)
Specific Gravity of Gas =0.62 Molecular Weight of Dry Air=28.964 gm/mole)
Density of Gas =0.76 Kg/SCM Mol.Weight of Gas 18 gm/mol
Gas required for 1 MW of Power generation =4541 SCM per Day Station Heat Rate (SHR); ~ 1720 Kcal/Kwh-NCV (50% Thermal Efficiency); N.Gas GCV- @10000 Kcal/SCM
Power Generation from 1 MMSCMD Gas =220 MWH Station Heat Rate (SHR); ~ 1720 Kcal/Kwh-NCV (50% Thermal Efficiency); N.Gas GCV- @10000 Kcal/SCM
Last Updated: June 09, 2017

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